Articles
Do SME IPOS Beat the Market on Listing Day?

Lovleen Gupta and Ashween Anand

Volume 41, Issue 2 (Jul - Dec) 2020

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This paper aims to examine the listing day returns provided by BSE SME IPOs over and above the market indices namely, S & P CNX Nifty, S & P BSE Sensex and BSE SME IPO Index. Further it identifies the different factors that explain the market-adjusted abnormal returns on listing. The results show that on average SME IPOs not only provide positive returns on the listing day but also outperform the Nifty, Sensex and BSE SME IPO Index. The linear regression analysis provides evidence supporting the information asymmetry, ex-ante uncertainty and signalling hypothesis. Favourable underwriter reputation signals good firm quality creating greater investor interest on listing day and higher abnormal returns. A second possibility could be that under-pricing is done to ensure that the SME issue is a success. This study has practical implications for market regulators to minimise the IPO listing delay in order to make the SME platform more attractive for investors and issuers.

Gold vs. India VIX : A Comparative Assessment of their Capacity to Act as a Hedge and/or Safe Haven Against Stocks, Crude and Rupee-Dollar Rate

Rakesh Shahani and Aastha Bansal

Volume 41, Issue 2 (Jul - Dec) 2020

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The present study is an attempt to compare two assets viz. Gold and INDIA VIX against three assets Nifty Index, Rupee-Dollar Exchange Rate, Crude so as to identify which of the two assets could be considered as the right prescription for an Indian investor as a hedge and which asset could prove as a safe haven or a rescue asset during adverse market conditions. The study considers daily closing prices of five variables for the period April 1, 2008 - March 31, 2019. The study employs both traditional tools like OLS Regression (with Dummy Variable) and also newer techniques like quantile regression to achieve the stated objective. Further both linear and non linear models have been constructed and study also includes a separate section for the period of Sub Prime Crisis to judge the behaviour of our variables during these times. The results of the study using OLS Model clearly showed that INDIA VIX does appear to perform its role as a safe haven asset in weak to moderate form against Nifty return while gold fails completely in this role. On the other hand , results from quantile regression do give a clue that gold might work as a safe haven against different assets, this however comes with a very low probability and the same is true for INDIA VIX. The quantile regression however throws some evidence that gold might also act as a hedge against Nifty Return while INDIA VIX could be suitable hedge against crude. Further the results of variability in returns during the sub prime crisis was noticed in case of gold as the dummy for sub prime was found to be statistically significant.

Agricultural Growth and Stagnation in Bihar: History and Prospects

Rakesh Ranjan

Volume 41, Issue 2 (Jul - Dec) 2020

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The state of Bihar in India draws academic attention mostly for its backwardness. Given that there is very poor industrial base in the state, the majority of its inhabitants still are dependent of agricultural activities for their livelihood. In the near foreseeable future, in absence of any significant change in its economic structure, the growth dynamics of agricultural sector will keep influencing the overall growth of the state. Given this importance, the present paper attempts to understand the nature and character of agricultural growth in the state in the last six decades. This is done to identify some crucial patterns that may guide any possible intervention to ameliorate the agrarian stagnation. Change in cropping pattern, expanding reliable irrigation, and focus on rice yields appear to be holding key to future progress.

Sovereign Wealth Funds: A Critical Analysis

Roshni Garg and Abha Shukla

Volume 41, Issue 2 (Jul - Dec) 2020

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Sovereign wealth funds (SWFs) refer to government owned investment vehicles that mostly invest abroad to meet some pre-determined macroeconomic objectives. Over the past few years, the number of SWFs and their assets have multiplied. In India too, SWFs have taken several big stakes during the Covid-19 pandemic and become the fourth largest category of foreign portfolio investors (FPIs) among thirty-two categories of FPIs investing in India. They have also expanded their footprint into debt and real estate markets. Despite this, not much is known about their investment activities, primarily owing to lack of data. By analysing multiple resources and databases, this paper seeks to give an overview of SWFs, their evolution, investment activities and associated challenges. We find that commodity exporting nations have been the pioneer of these funds and almost all SWFs have a strong preference for investing in real estate and finance, especially in high-income developed countries. We also discuss the characteristics of Indian SWF, NIIF and how it is different from conventional SWFs. Our paper concludes with a brief discussion on the presence of foreign SWFs in India and the need to further explore the issue in detail.

Heterogeneous Growth Trajectories of Indian States: Growth Regressions Through the Lens of Club Convergence

Meenakshi Sharma

Volume 41, Issue 2 (Jul - Dec) 2020

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This paper examines the growth trajectories of Indian states. We find that not only is the disparity among states increasing, there is evidence that the distribution of the per-capita income of states is becoming bimodal. We use the methodology of Phillips and Sul (2007) to identify convergence clubs among Indian states and find three clubs. Furthermore, in a novel application of this methodology we use the identified clubs to run separate growth regressions for different clubs of states and find significant differences in the regression coefficients. This vindicates our approach and shows that combining data from all states at the same time to study growth dynamics can be misleading in a heterogenous country like India.

Competitive Behaviour of Outward Foreign Direct Investment from India

Manoj Kumar Sinha and Shalini Rawal

Volume 41, Issue 1(Jan- June) 2020

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The paper intends to focus on the direction of Outward Foreign Direct Investment (OFDI) from India. It also analyses the competition for Indian overseas investment among different country groupings. In terms of direction of OFDI from India, the changes in ranks of FDI outflows to developing countries are more than that of developed countries. Ranking patterns reveals that there is high level of competition among developing countries to attract Indian overseas investors. Somewhat same results are depicted by Index of Rank Dominance (IRD) in case of all the countries of the world, where out of total 25 countries, 7 are developed countries and other are developing countries, majority of them are considered to be tax havens. Mobility and Turnover shows high competition for OFDI from India in developing countries than developed countries.

A Trend Analysis of NPAs of Banks in India for 2008-2018

Amit Kumar Singh and Renuka Prasad

Volume 41, Issue 1(Jan- June) 2020

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Non-Performing Assets (NPAs) are one of the indicators indicating the performance of banks in India. As Indian Financial system is banking dominated, its health reflects the health of the economy. This paper discusses the Gross NPA, Gross Advances and thus the Asset Quality of Public Sector banks, Private Sector banks and Foreign banks from 2008-2018. The objectives of the paper are to analyse the trends in banking sector, highlight individual banks and understand few dynamics. The data is mainly secondary in nature collected from the RBI website. The study finds that Public Sector banks have deteriorating performance than other banks in the period. The asset quality deteriorated to 11.2% in 2018 as highest peak. It also found that there exists positive relation of Gross NPA ratio among PSB, PV and FB. Also there was significant difference in the Gross NPA (in amount) and Gross NPA ratio of different structure of banks measured by ANOVA. PSB advances are less affected by Gross NPA as compared to others.

Empirical Investigation of Select NSE Sector specific Indices to ascertain seasonality & asymmetries in their return & volatility

Rakesh Shahani and Ananya Sharma

Volume 41, Issue 1(Jan- June) 2020

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The current study makes an attempt to investigate the month-wise seasonal variation in returns (& also volatility of returns) of four sector specific indices viz. Nifty Auto, Nifty FMCG, Nifty Pharma and Nifty Real Estate of National Stock Exchange for the ten year period April 2009 to March 2019. Besides this, the study would also investigate spill-over of volatility from one sector specific index to another and also ascertain asymmetries in their return and return volatility. The data for the purpose of the study includes log transformed monthly returns of the four sampled sector specific indices. The methodology employed for this purpose include OLS (NW) Regression for testing seasonal impact in returns and GARCH(1,1) framework for ascertaining seasonal impact in return volatility. Further for asymmetry of returns, ‘T’ GARCH Model has been employed & for spill-over impact, residual squared error terms has been included in the GARCH Model. The results of the study showed that seasonal variation in returns did exist in some of the sector specific indices. In terms of results of asymmetry in volatility, only one index Nifty Auto was found to have asymmetric returns , on the other hand the spill-over impact from one sector to another was not visible from the results. The data was also tested for stationarity using DF-GLS test & all sector specific indices were found to be I(1) stationary.

Determinants of External Debt in India

Swami Prasad Saxena and Ishan Shanker

Volume 41, Issue 1(Jan- June) 2020

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This paper uncovers theoretical foundations of the factors influencing external debt and presents empirical model of the macroeconomic determinates of external debt in India for a period from 1990-91 to 2016-17. The OLS model reveal that gross fiscal deficit, net domestic savings, net domestic capital formation, exports, imports, real effective exchange rate, foreign exchange reserves, net terms of trade, consumer price index, debt service ratio, net foreign direct investment, gross domestic product and real interest rates (LIBOR) are the prominent macroeconomic variables and they explain 62 percent of the total systematic variations in India’s gross external debt.

Introducing the Concept of “Holistic Development & Well-being of Employees (HDWE)”

Seep Sethi and Mala Sinha

Volume 41, 2020

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The present study attempts to re-examine the concept of well-being at work in the contemporary scenario. The nature of work and workplace are changing rapidly, increased competition, work pressure, 24X7 work culture, etc. has made it important to re-examine the current literature on well-being at work to address the growing issues of stress, anxiety, and work-life imbalances. An exploratory study was also undertaken with the aim to understand the perspectives that prevail amongst the working professionals concerning the concept of well-being at work. Based on literature and results of the exploratory study, the paper attempts to re-define the concept of well-being at work by collectively examining all of its dimensions, viz. psychological, physical, financial, social, career and spiritual well-being, to make it more holistic. In the extant literature the dimension of spiritual well-being has been studied separately, and never been integrated with the other dimensions of well-being. The present paper proposes a more holistic framework on well-being at work which considers all the dimensions collectively in the work context.